A deep learning artificial intelligence research project at Google.
It combines open-ended machine learning research with system engineering and Google-scale computing resources.
A British artificial intelligence company founded in September 2010 and acquired by Google in 2014.
The company has created a neural network that learns how to play video games in a fashion similar to that of humans, as well as a Neural Turing Machine, or a neural network that may be able to access an external memory like a conventional Turing machine, resulting in a computer that mimics the short-term memory of the human brain.
The company made headlines in 2016 after its AlphaGo program beat a human professional Go player for the first time.
Facebook AI research (FAIR)
An artificial intelligence research group in Facebook, led by Yann Lecun.
One of its notable projects is DeepFace -- a deep learning facial recognition system that identifies human faces in digital images.
It employs a nine-layer neural net with over 120 million connection weights, and was trained on four million images uploaded by Facebook users.
The system is said to be 97% accurate, compared to 85% for the FBI's Next Generation Identification system.
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)
Founded in 1982, is an institute of advanced study that creates and maintains global research networks working on complex areas of inquiry.
It is supported by individuals, foundations and corporations, as well as funding from the Government of Canada and the Provinces of Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia and Alberta.
Among other topics, its researchers work on the topic of learning in machines and brains.